of Hypertext and Graphical User Interfaces

Alan Kay Media Center

Verified references have signatures with square brackets. The others are taken from various sources, but I still dare to get my fingers on them. Please let me know, if you find new online or offline references to Alan Kay:

I owe a big thank-you to Ulrich Klotz, Michael Friedewald, Alexander Stigsen, Bob Goodman, Ralf Scharnetzki, and Yoshiki Ohshima.

Year Reference
Kay 67

Kay, Alan C.: FLEX: an extensible simulation language which can be directly executed by computer. Computer Science Note, September 67, University of Utah, Salt Lake City

[Kay 68]

–––––: FLEX – A flexible extendable language. MSc., 1968 (excerpt)

[Kay 69]

–––––: The Reactive Engine. PhD., 1969: University of Utah (excerpt | full)

Kay 70 –––––: Rambling towards a KiddiKomp. In: Stanford AI Project Lab Notebook, Nov. 1970
[Kay 72a]

–––––: A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages. In Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, Boston Aug. 1972. Kay72a11 pages, 900 KB (transcript)

[Kay 72b]

–––––: A Dynamic Medium For Creative Thought, National Council of Teachers of English Conference (NCTE) Conference “20 things to do with a Dynabook”
This was pretty much what I wanted the group to accomplish (except for music, etc.) [Kay 96, p. 576]

[Kay 72] –––––: Computer Applications: A Dynamic Medium for Creative Thought 1972 (49')
[Kay 75]

–––––: Personal Computing. In: Meeting on 20 Years of Computing Science.. Instituto di Elaborazione della Informazione, Pisa, Italy, 1975. Kay75 30 pages, 2.5 MB

Kay/Goldberg 75

––––– / Goldberg, Adele (eds): Dynamic Personal Media. Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 1975

[Goldberg/Kay 76] Goldberg, Adele / –––––: Personal Dynamic Media. Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Learning Research Group, 1976. A Xerox PARC Orange Book (77 pages, PDF)
[Goldberg/Kay 76b] Adele Goldberg and Alan Kay. Smalltalk-72 instruction manual. Technical Report SSL 76-6, Learning Research Group, Xerox Palo, Alto Research Center, 1976.
[Kay/Goldberg 77]

––––– / Goldberg, Adele: Personal Dynamic Media. In: IEEE Computer. Vol. 10 No. 3 (March), 1977: Reprinted in [Goldberg 88, p. 254-263]. also in The New Media Reader: nmr-26-kay14 pages, 9.65 MB

Republished by Viewpoints Research Institute: PDF

[1977] –––––: Microelectronics and the Personal Computer. Scientific American 237, no. 3 (1977)(Sep.): 230-244. scans at digibarn


–––––: Programming Your Own Computer, in Science Year, The World Book Annual Science Supplement, 183-195. (Chicago, Ill., 1978).

1979 –––––: Programming Your Own Computer, Science Year 1979, World Book Encyclopedia, 1979
[1983] Video Portrait on Alan Kay (VPRI-0843 Alan Kay Segment) (7')
  • Alan Kay at Atari

[Kay 84]

–––––: Computer Software. Scientific American, 251(3):41--47, September 1984

Kay 84/D

–––––: Software. In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. Vol. No. 11 p. 34-43. Springer, Berlin, 1984


–––––: Keynote address. OOPSLA, 1986
[Kay 86] –––––: Keynote address. Proceedings of the 1986 workshop on Interactive 3D graphics October 23 - 24, 1986, Chapel Hill, NC USA (summery only)
[Kay 86?] Video Alan Kay talk at Coors Television (1:40')
[Xerox 86] Video Logo and Smalltalk (30')
[Kay 87] Video

–––––: Doing With Images Makes Symbols: Communicating with Computers. Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA, 1987. (Video, 85')
also at User Interface I, User Interface II at U of Berkeley

[Kay 87] Video –––––: User Group University talk (1:27')) Apple User Group Connection 1987
[Kay 88] Video Alan Kay et al.: Knowlege Navigator Implications (9' 46"), Apple 1988 /via
[89] Video A Conversation with Alan Kay (14') 28-Jun-89
[Kay 90]

–––––: User Interface: A Personal View. In: Laurel, Brenda (ed): The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. p. 191. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990

[90] Video Alan Kay Interview, WGBH open vault, (2:45')
[Kay 91] –––––: Computers, Networks and Education. In: Scientific American, Sept. 1991, p. 148, excerpt at In Depth

«The model building capabilities of the computer should enable mindlike processes to be built and should allow designers to create flexible "agents". These agents will take on their owner's goals, confer about strategies (asking questions of users as well as answering their queries) and, by reasoning, fabricate goals of their own.»

Kay 91/D –––––: Neue Informationssysteme und Bildung. In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. Vol. No. 11 p. 136-147. Springer, Berlin, 1991
Kay 91

Ryan, B. 1991. DYNABOOK Revisited with Alan Kay. BYTE, February, 203--208

1991 Alan Kay Interviewed in BYTE 16:11, 1991, p.43.
[Kay 91] Video Alan Kay at the Getty Conference 4-26-91 (1:04')
[Kay 91] Video Alan Kay at Computerland October '91 (52')
[Kay 92] –––––: Personal Dynamic Media, 230 pages, Japanese (
[Kay 93] –––––: The Early History of Smalltalk. HOPL-II/4/93/MA, USA

[Cypher 93] Allen Cypher: Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1993. (foreword by Alan Kay)
[Kay 94] –––––: Global Village or Global Civilization? World Economic Forum
[Kay 94] –––––: Observations about Children and Computers, Apple Research Note #RN-94-31, Advanced Technology Group, Learning Concepts Group Note #15, May 1994
[Kelly/Levy 94] [Kelly/Levi 1994]Kelly, Kevin / Levi, Steven: Kay + Hillis. In: WIRED (1), 1994. An interview between Alan Kay and Danny Hillis
[Frenkel 94]

Frenkel , Karen A.: A Conversation with Alan Kay. In: Interactions. Vol. 1 No. 2 (Apr.) p. 13-22. ACM Press, New York, 1994

[Kay 95] –––––: Powerful Ideas Need Love Too! Written remarks to a Joint Hearing of the Science Committee and the Economic and Educational and Opportunites Committee, Oct. 15, 1995 minnow:12v2
[Kay 95] Video –––––: Simex: the neglected part of Bush's Vision at The Brown/MIT Vannevar Bush Symposium 1995 – Video Archive
[Kay 95] –––––: Authoring – The unfulfilled goal of personal computing. Viewpoints Research Institute
[Kay 96]

–––––: The Early History of Smalltalk. In: Bergin, Thomas J. / Gibson, Richard G. (eds): History of Programming Languages II. p. 511. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1996

[Kay 96b]

–––––: Revealing the elephant: The use and misuse of computers in education. In: Sequence. Vol. 31 No. 4 (Jul./Aug.) p. 22-28, 1996. HUM298, also in Education Review, 31(4) and minnow:11

[Kay 96c] Audio –––––: Lecture: Changing representational structures – The Dynabook – SmallTalk – Multiple mentalities (online audio, 1:50)
[1997] Video –––––: The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet. Keynote address at the ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications, 5-9-Oct 1997
[Kay 97] –––––: Science Already IS Art! The San Jose Museum of Technology brochure
[Ingalls et al. 97]

Ingalls, Daniel H. H. / Kaehler, Ted / Maloney, John / Wallace, Scott / Kay, Alan C.: Back to the Future: The Story of Squeak, A Practical Smalltalk Written in Itself. In: OOPSLA 97 Proceedings. p. 318-326. ACM Press, New York, 1997
(Published as SIGPLAN Notices 32(10):318-326)
(a postscript by Dan Ingalls in [Guzdial/Rose 2001])

[Kay 97] Video –––––: The Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet. OOPSLA 97
[Kay 97] Video Stanford EE 380 class by Allison, Wharton. Alan Kay talk 6/4/97 (1:26')
[Kay/Smith 98]

–––––: Re: Configuring a Dynabook. email to Jonathan A. Smith, 1998

[Kay 98] Video –––––: The Computer “Revolution” Hasn’t Happened Yet! EDUCOM ’98. October 12, 1998 (online video, 1:06')
[Kay 98b] Video Engelbart’s Unfinished Revolution. symposion December 9, 1998 (online video)
[Kay 98] Video Alan Kay at MIT-EECS 1998 Fall Semester Colloquium Series (1:30')
[Educom 99] Interview : Alan Kay: Software Design, the Future of Programming and the Art of Learning. Interview in Educom Review, 34(2), 1999
[Rivero 99] Alan Kay: Interface with Meaning. Interview by Victor Rivero. In converge Sep, 99
stored at webarchive
Rheingold 2000 Rheingold, Howard: Tools for Thought. rev.ed.. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000.
(contains an interview with Alan Kay)
[Engelbart/Kay 2000] Video Doug Engelbart / –––––: Progress on the Frontiers: Technology and Progress — February 15, 2000. (online video)
stored at webarchive

real media stream at pp_engelbart-kay.ram

[Kay 2000] –––––: The Computer Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet. Proceedings of the 8th ACM international conference on multimedia, October 30 - November 3, 2000, Los Angeles, CA USA (abstract only)
[Kay/Müller-Prove 2000] –––––: Re: ¿ Ph.D. 1969. email to Matthias Müller-Prove, Nov. 2000
Fremerey/Schüler 2001 Interview Fank Fremerey, Peter Schüler: Die Revolution kommt erst noch, GUI-Vordenker Alan Kay im Gespräch, c’t 16/2001
[Kay/Müller-Prove 2001] –––––: Re: Ph.D. 1969 found :-). email to Matthias Müller-Prove, Apr. 2001
[Guzdial 2001] Guzdial, Mark: Squeak: Object-oriented design with multimedia applications. Alan’s Foreword
[Guzdial/Rose 2001] Guzdial, Mark / Rose, Kimberly (eds): Squeak: Open Personal Computing and Multimedia. Prentice Hall, 2001.
(Introduction by Alan Kay)
[Kay 2001] Video –––––: A Personal History of User Interface Design at sd&m conference, Bonn. 2001 (1:20')
[2002] Interview The Dynabook Revisited - A Conversation with Alan Kay

[2002] Interview Still waiting for the revolution - A conversation with Alan Kay. in Perspectives on Business Innovation
ISSUE 8: Connected Innovation (2002)
[2002] –––––: The Computer Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet - Grand Challenge: Make It Happen In The Best Possible Way 3 pages, 78KB. CRA Conference on "Grand Research Challenges" in Computer Science and Engineering, June 23-26, 2002, Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia
2002 –––––: The Computer Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet. Keynote at Mensch & Computer 2002 in Hamburg, September 5, 2002
[Leßmöllmann 2002] Annette Leßmöllmann: Der Schulspaßmacher. Die Zeit 47/2002
[2002] Tori Brandow: the future of computing is invention - an interview with Alan Kay, HP, 2002 HP Feature Story Dec 2002
[2003] Alan Kay: Our Human Condition "From Space". Viewpoints Research Institute, 2003
[2003] Alan Kay: Background on How Children Learn. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2003
[2003] AudioVideo Lisa Rein's Tour Of Alan Kay's Etech 2003 Presentation
[2003] Video Computer History Museum: Future of Software Development Series: Alan Kay (just 15' Q&A captured)
[2003] Video Croquet: A Collaboration Architecture
[2003] Video Alan Kay: Turing Award Lecture (1:07'), OOPSLA 2003
[2004] Alan Kay: The Power Of The Context.
[2004] Video The Computer Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet at OOPSLA 04 (1:07')
[2005] Interview Kestenbaum, David: The challenges of IDC: What have we learned from our past? – A conversation with Seymour Papert, Marvin Minsky, and Alan Kay. In: Communications of the ACM 48(1) p. 35-38, 2005
[2005] Video 2005 Kyoto Laureate Symposium: • Dr. Allan Kay, 2004 Kyoto Laureate in Advanced Technology, Understanding Powerful Ideas, and How Computers Can Help
[2005] Alan Kay: The Center of "Why?". Alan Kay's 2004 Kyoto Prize paper. /via Viewpoints Research Institute
[2005] Alan Kay: Squeak Etoys, Children & Learning. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2007
[2005] Alan Kay: Squeak Etoys Authoring & Media. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2007
[~2005] Alan Kay: Enlightened Imagination For Citizens
[2006a] –––––: Are 'Computer Science' and 'Software Engineering' Oxymorons? Lecture at the U of Utah, Feb-23, 2006
[2006b] –––––: Children, Powerful Ideas, and the $100 Laptop. Lecture at the U of Utah, Feb-23, 2006
[2006c] Video EuroPython 2006 - Keynote by Alan Kay. part 1part 2part 3
[2007] Video Honoris Causa Degree in Informatica to Alan Curtis Kay by University of Pisa, Italy.
[2007] Quotes Allan Alter: Alan Kay: The PC Must Be Revamped—Now. (interview). for CIO inside Feb-14, 2007
[2007] Alan Kay: Thoughts About Teaching Science and Mathematics To Young Children. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2007
[2007] Alan Kay: Children Learning by Doing: Squeak Etoys on the OLPC XO. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2007
[2007] Alan Kay: The Real Computer Revolution Hasn't Happened Yet. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2007
[2007] Alan Kay et al.: STEPS Toward The Reinvention of Programming. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2007
[2007] Video Alan Kay: A Conversation with CMU Faculty & Students, July 2007, (1:20')
[2007] Video Alan Kay: A powerful idea about ideas, TED 2007
Video Education in the Digital Age (RealVideo)
Quotes Quotes by Alan Kay, collected by Marcus Denker
Alan Kay: Reading List
[2008] Alessandro Warth and Alan Kay: Worlds: Controlling the Scope of Side Effects. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2008
[2008] Alan Kay et al.: STEPS Toward The Reinvention of Programming, 2009 Progress Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) October 2008. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2008
[2008] Video The 40th Anniversary of the Dynabook, Panel: May Lou Jepsen, Alan Kay, Charles Thacker (1:44') Computer History Museum 5-Nov-2008
[2009] Alan Kay et al.: STEPS Toward The Reinvention of Programming, 2009 Progress Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) October 2009. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2009
[2009] Video Alan Kay: Normal Condidered Harmful (1:07'), Champaign Urbana UIUC, 22-Oct-2009
[2010] Quotes Did Steve Jobs Steal The iPad? Genius Inventor Alan Kay Reveals All. Interview by Wolfgang Gruener, 17-Apr-2010
[2010] Video Alan Kay’s Dynabook - Rare NHK Video, 1:14'
[2010] Alan Kay et al.: STEPS Toward Expressive Programming Systems, 2010 Progress Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) October 2010. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2010
[2010] Alan Kay: Programming and Programming Languages. Viewpoints Research Institute, 2010
[2011] Video Alan Kay: Programming and Scaling. Hasso Plattner Institute, 21-July-2011, 57'
[2011] Video Alan Kay: keynote talk srii 2011 (48'), 31-Mar-2011
[2012] Video –––––: Rethinking Design, Risk, and Software (1:07'), COFES 2012
[2012] Video –––––: SCIx Keynote Presentation 2012 (1:23') University of Utah
[2013] Video Alan Kay interviewed by Dave Marvit, The Computer History Museum, CA, 23-Jan-2013
[2013] Video Alan Kay guest kexnote NATF2013 part 1 (25') part 2 (43'), Computer History Museum 24-Jan-2013
[2013] Quotes An Interview with Computing Pioneer Alan Kay. Interview by David Greelish, Time Tech, 2-Apr-2013
[2013] Video An Interview with Computing Pioneer Alan Kay (25'), Paderborn
[2013] Alan Kay: What is a Dynabook? Viewpoints Research Institute, 2013
[2013] –––––: The Future of Reading Depends on the Future of Learning Difficult to Learn Things. /via Viewpoints Research Institute, 2013
[2013] Video –––––: Programming Languages & Programming (49')
[2013] Video –––––: Is it really "Complex"? Or did we just make it "Complicated"? Alan addresses Qualcomm | utube
[2014] Video Alan Kay's tribute to Ted Nelson at "Intertwingled" Fest, 24-Apr-2014
  • Bonnie MacBird creating the script for TRON on a Xerox Alto
  • original Xerox PARC Smalltalk master tape backup survived – now emulated on JavaScript
[2014] Video Alan Kay et al.: Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (1 day conferene at Chapman University, 24-Apr-2014)
[2014] Video Gardner Campell interview with Alan Kay (2:54')
[2015] John Pavlus, Alan Kay: 5 Steps To Re-create Xerox PARC's Design Magic (From The Guy Who Helped Make It), fastcodesign, 27 May 2015
[2015] Video Alan Kay: Rethinking CS Education, CrossRoads 2015 (1:10')
  • idaes as matter vs. ideas as radiation
  • MML: Children are the message we send into the future.
    ACK: No, children are the future that we send into the future.
[2015] Video –––––: Power of Simplicity, SAP simplify 2015 (51')
–––––: Programming and Scaling (56'), Hasso Plattner Institute
[2016] Video Alan Kay in conversation with Vishal Sikka, CHI 2016 Plenary (47')
[2016] Jimmy Mahler: The Freedom to Associate. The Digital Antiquarian 9/16. – Alan Kay shares insights on Bill Atkinson’s WildCard/HyperCard in the comments.
[2016] Video Alan Kay: Keynote - The Best Way to Predict the Future is to Invent It CRESSTCon 2016 (46')
[2016] Video Joe Armstrong interviews Alan Kay (1:16') CODE MESH London 2016

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